Since the extraordinary events of early 2011, most Arab countries have slipped into a state of war, and living conditions for the majority of the working population have not improved. The revolution did not restructure society in favour of working people. The reason is that the prevailing ideology remains set in the neoliberal discourse. The policies behind the resource allocation mechanisms, the conveyor belts of income and wealth distribution, have not changed. This edited collection examines the socioeconomic conditions and provides a critique of the existing policy framework from a heterodox angle. Authored by leading scholars of Arab development, this book contests the received policy framework and aims to demonstrate that workable alternatives do exist.