This fascinating text, first published in 1875, is a key early example of the conflict thesis. This theory expounds the premise of an intrinsic conflict between science and religion, and is archetypal of one aspect of this late-Victorian debate. Draper asserts that science has reached a point where its threat to traditional teachings can no longer be ignored, and he offers this history as a means to understanding both the interaction between religion and science and their perpetual opposition. He covers examples of this relationship, from Christianity’s origins to the then contemporary crisis of church division and the Prussian-Austrian war, and also examines in turn what both Christianity and science have done for modern civilisation. Discussions of the central points of crossover and change in the history of science and Christianity lead to the conclusion that for religion to survive it must accept fact and reason.